The Usages of Aniline

In the late 19th century, aniline derivatives such as acetanilide and phenacetin emerged as analgesics whose cardioinhibitory side effects were often counteracted by caffeine.

The Usages of Aniline

Medical development

In the late 19th century, aniline derivatives such as acetanilide and phenacetin emerged as analgesics whose cardioinhibitory side effects were often counteracted by caffeine. In the first decade of the 20th century, while trying to modify synthetic dyes to treat African sleeping sickness, Paul Ehrlich -- who coined the term chemotherapy for his panacea approach -- failed and instead modified Bechamp's Atoxyl, the first organic arsenic drug, And accidentally acquired a treatment for syphilis, Salvarsan -- the first successful chemotherapy drug. Salvarsan's target organism has not yet been identified as a bacterium, but is still thought to be a parasite, and medical bacteriologists dismissed Alexander Fleming's 1928 report on the effects of penicillin as insensitive to chemotherapy methods.

 

In 1932, Bayer sought medical applications for its dyes. Gerhard Domagk identified the red azo dye as an antiseptic, which was introduced in 1935 as Prontosil, the first antiseptic, It was soon discovered at the Pasteur Institute that a prodrug degraded in the body to sulfameamine - a colorless intermediate used in many highly colorless azo dyes - had been patented with an expired patent, synthesized by researcher Paul Gelmo in Vienna in 1908 for his doctoral research. By the 1940s, more than 500 related sulfonamides had been produced. Drugs in high demand during World War II (1939-45), these first miracle drugs, widely effective chemotherapy, propelled the American pharmaceutical industry. In 1939, Howard Florey developed Fleming's penicillin as the first systemic antibiotic, penicillin G, while looking for an alternative to sulfa drugs at Oxford University. (Gramicidin, developed by Rene Dubos at the Rockefeller Institute in 1939, was the first antibiotic, but its toxicity limited it to topical use.) After World War II, Cornelius P. Rhoads introduced chemotherapy to cancer treatment.

 

Rocket fuel

Some early American rockets, such as Aerobee and WAC Corporal, used a mixture of aniline and furfuryl alcohol as fuel and nitric acid as an oxidant. This combination is spontaneous, igniting on contact between fuel and oxidizer. It's also dense and can be stored for a long time. Aniline was later replaced by hydrazine.